Citing Primary Sources

Handwritten manuscript on lined yellow paper that has been discolored in one corner by what was most likely water.

Fragment of Manuscript on His Life and Experiences, by Hiram Edson.

HOW TO CITE A TRADITIONAL PAPER PRIMARY SOURCE DOCUMENT

Citing a primary source document from an archive varies depending on the preference of your instructor, the publication to which you are submitting the article, or the discipline in which you are operating.  You may wish to consult the Andrews University Writing Center for further information. The particular style required may be the American Psychological Assocaition (APA), the Modern Language Association (MLA), the Chicago Manual of Style, or one of the less common styles.

There are several elements to the citation which may be necessary to properly cite a document such as the Hiram Edson Manuscript fragment shown to the left.

The document: The creator or author, specific item title, page, section, date.

Box and file number: The majority of materials found in archives, that are not books, are housed in some sort of container and within the container the various items are separated for various reasons in files.

Repository: This is the name of the archives.


The document shown on the left is found in the:

Collection: Advent Source Collection

Call Number: VT 000272

Archives: The Center for Adventist Research. James White Library. Andrews University.  Berrien Springs, Michigan.


The Hiram Edson Manuscript fragment shown here could be cited in the following ways:

American Psychological Association:

Edson, H. (not dated). [manuscript fragment].  Center for Adventist Research (VT 000272), James White Library, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI.

Modern Language Association:

Edson, Hiram.  Manuscript fragment. not dated.  Center for Adventist Research, James White Library, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI.

Chicago Manual of Style:

Hiram Edson, not dated, VT 000272, Center for Adventist Research, James White Library, Andrews University.


Ellen G. white letter to W. K. Kellogg, Jan. 25, 1900

Ellen G. white letter to W. K. Kellogg, Jan. 25, 1900

Ellen G. White Research Materials 

Many of our researchers at the Center are students of the Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary. Kate L. Turabian’s, A Manual for Writers, is used for most Seminary papers and some studies in Religious Education. This manual contains complete rules and many helpful examples for preparing footnote entries, bibliographic entries, and tables and figures. For more information on how to cite materials, see the Andrews University Standards for Written Work.


The document shown on the left is found in the:

Collection: Ellen G. White Letters and Manuscripts

Call Number: Lt 7, 1900

Archives: The Center for Adventist Research. James White Library. Andrews University.  Berrien Springs, Michigan.


The Ellen White letter to W. K. Kellogg shown here could be cited in the following ways:

American Psychological Association:

White, E. (1900, Jan 25). [Letter to William Keith Kellogg].  Center for Adventist Research (Lt 4, 1900), James White Library, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI.

Modern Language Association:

White, Ellen.  Letter to William Keith Kellogg. 25 Jan 1900.  Center for Adventist Research, James White Library, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI.

Chicago Manual of Style:

Ellen White, 25 Jan 1900, Lt 7, 1900, Center for Adventist Research, James White Library, Andrews University.

Turabian Footnote and Bibliography:

Footnote (unpublished letter):
29Ellen G. White to William Keith Kellogg, 25 January 1900, Letter 7, 1900, Center for Adventist Research, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI.

Footnote (manuscript):
30Ellen G. White, MS 154, 1902, Center for Adventist Research, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI.

Bibliography (unpublished letter):
White, Ellen G., to William Keith Kellogg, 25 January 1900. Letter 7, 1900. Center for Adventist Research. Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI.

Bibliography (manuscript):
White, Ellen G. MS 154, 1902. Center for Adventist Research. Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI.


Small typewritten card from W. F. Albright to Grace Amadon, August 24, 1942. It reads: Dear Miss Amadon, Your letter of the 21st has just reached me. I shall leave for New York Thursday, to be gone until Monday. I suggest that you come over Wednesday, the 26th, in the morning or after 4:00 p.m. in the afternoon -- the morning is better, since I shall be teaching in the early afternoon and the building is closed at 4:00 p.m. I shall be here continuously, I expect, through September. Cordially, W. F. Albright.

W. F. Albright to Grace Amadon, Aug. 24, 1942

HOW TO CITE AN ELECTRONIC PRIMARY SOURCE DOCUMENT

Citing a digital object:

The letter (shown on the left) from the Grace Amadon Collection is found in the Center for Adventist Research Digital Library.  It is both a paper document in the collection and a digital object in the Digital Library.  The best way of citing this document as a digital object using one of the above formats, APA, MLA, or Chicago Manual of Style is to add the Reference URL at the end of the citation.


The document shown on the left is found in the:

Collection: Grace Amadon Collection

Box: Box 1: Correspondence (sent and received)

File: Folder 1: Albright, F. W.

Archives: The Center for Adventist Research. James White Library. Andrews University.  Berrien Springs, Michigan.


The digital object of the Albright letter to Amadon shown here could be cited in the following ways:

American Psychological Association:

Albright, W. (1942, Aug 24). [letter to Grace Amadon].  Grace Amadon Collection, Center for Adventist Research (Box 1, Folder 1), James White Library, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI. Reference URL: http://www.andrews.edu/library/car/cardigital/digitized/collections/0154/C0154_B001_F01.pdf

Modern Language Association:

Albright, William.  Letter to Grace Amadon. 24 Aug 1942.  Grace Amadon Collection, Center for Adventist Research, James White Library, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI. Reference URL: http://www.andrews.edu/library/car/cardigital/digitized/collections/0154/C0154_B001_F01.pdf

Chicago Manual of Style:

William Albright, 24 August 1942, Box 1, Folder 1, Grace Amadon Collection, Center for Adventist Research, James White Library, Andrews University. Reference URL: http://www.andrews.edu/library/car/cardigital/digitized/collections/0154/C0154_B001_F01.pdf